A lot of times Clients are confused about the foreclosure and the terminology so I have complied a few relevant terms that I typically explain to them,, says Charlotte Bankruptcy Attorney , Victorianne MAXWELL OF MAXWELL LAW FIRM, PLLC
1. Acceleration – A term in a mortgage agreement that allows the lender to request entire balance of the mortgage loan be paid in full, typically occurs after default.
2. Arrearages—past due payments.
3. Arm—adjustable rate mortgage is a loan where interest rate adjusted periodically anywhere from every six months or a year. The rates are often below market, but continue to increase and may ballon to higher payments during the life of the loan.
4. Bankruptcy –federal legal right that provides debt relief assistance for individuals who meet certain income requirements.
5. Complaint—a claim for which claim on which relief is sought.
6. Credit history –a record of an individual’s or company’s past borrowing and repaying, including information about late payments.
7. Credit score—a numeric score that measures the credit worthiness of an individual based on credit history, payment history, credit balances, and the number of recent inquires.
8. Creditor –person or company who extends a credit to debtor (mortgagee, lienholder, lender).
9. Fixed Rate Mortgage— a loan with an interest rate that is fixed for the life of the loan.
10. Foreclosure –legal process by where a homeowner is disposed of their interest in real estate.
a. Judicial foreclosure –foreclosure process must be executed through state court. This means the creditor must sue the debtor/homeowner in state court to receive the possession of the property.
b. Non-Judicial foreclosure –foreclosure process can be executed by sale once default occurs, without initiating an action in state court. The power of sale clause is typically in the mortgage agreement.
11. Debtor – person who makes a promise to repay a debt owed to a creditor (homeowner, mortgagor).
12. Deed – Document that indicates title owner and is used to transfer ownership to a real estate.
13. Deed of Trust — A recorded mortgage instrument securing a note to a real estate, where a third party acts as a trustee.
14. Default - Nonperformance of a duty, failure to meet obligations of the (mortgage) loan.
15. Deficiency –difference between the amount owed on a mortgage note and what the foreclosing party receives on the sale of the foreclosed property at auction.
16. Equity –when the fair market value of real estate exceeds the amount of indebtedness on the property.
17. Federal Housing Authority (FHA) Loan—a federally insured mortgage loan.
18. Forbearance – When a lender agrees to postpone foreclosure in order to give the borrower time a catch up with arrearages.
19. Levy—the collection of a liability which occurs once a debt is defaulted upon and becomes mature.
20. Lien - A claim or interest on the real estate property stemming from an unpaid debt.
21. Lis Pendens—a suit pending in a court that concerns the title to land.
22. Loan modification – lenders agreement to change the terms of the mortgage agreement by either decreasing the amount of monthly payments, lengthen the term of the loan, and or decreasing the amount of interest on the loan.
23. Mortgagee—(SYN) lender, bank, creditor.
24. Mortgagor –(SYN) borrower, homeowner, buyer, debtor.
25. Negative equity—when the value of the property is less than the amount of indebtedness.
26. Note –promissory note securing an interest in real estate. Usually recorded in the county where the real estate is situated to evidence notice of the lenders interest in the property.
27. Notice—a period of warning required by law and or instrument (mortgage agreement).
28. Power of Sale-Clause in a mortgage or deed of trust giving the mortgagee (or trustee) the right and power to advertise and sell the property at public auction on default in the payment of the debt secured.
29. Primary mortgage– A first lien/mortgage on real estate property.
30. Priority—dictates which lien first in right (and time) to claim against real estate. In the case of foreclosure creditors or lienholders on a property get paid according to priority and often times not at all if they are after a primary lien holder.
31. Ownership classifications
a. Tenancy by the Entirety – The joint ownership by husband and wife where surviving spouse becomes the sole owner. Creditors of only one of the spouses cannot make claims to real estate titled to both spouses.
b. Tenants in common—co-owners in real estate without rights of survivorship.
c. Joint tenants—joint ownership by non-spouses who have the right of survivorship. Last tenant becomes the sole owner of the property.
32. Refinance –process by which a homeowner cashes in the equity in a property and pays off existing mortgage by acquiring a new one.
33. Right of Redemption –right of a homeowner to cure default prior to the close of foreclosure proceedings.
34. Sheriff Deed–
35. Sheriff sale—A court order authorizing the Sheriff’s office to conduct the sale in satisfaction of a judgment.
36. Short sale –process whereby a lender agrees to allow homeowner sells the piece of real estate for less than the amount of the mortgage debt, contingent on the lenders approval of the buyers.
37. Home owner Association (Planned Communities)—an association created by an individuals in a residential subdivision for the purpose of enforcing the planned community laws and or the bylaws created by a developer and or modified by that association.
38. Tax liens – a claim for unpaid taxes.
39. Title search –Search of public recorded information to determine the legal ownership to the property.
40. Trustee deed — Document conveying ownership of property to highest bidder at a Trustee Sale.
41. Writ –A form of written command in the name of a court or other legal authority to act.
Maxwell Law Firm represents clients in North Carolina with: bankruptcy court, filing for bankruptcy, chapter 7 bankruptcy, foreclosure defense, chapter 13 bankruptcy representation, and loan modifications. You may schedule your appointment by calling 704-780-1100 or save 25% off the fees and schedule online at http://maxwelllegal.com/consultations
The Law Offices of Chirnese L. Liverpool assist debtors with foreclosure defense and filing for Bankruptcy in California.